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Disposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the respiratory tract of the beagle dog. These effects were reported for occupational exposures. Gunnar Nielsen reported having provided an expert opinion or testimony as part of a regulatory, legislative or judicial process related to the subject of air pollution for a commercial entity or other organization. Lymphoma and lung cancer in offspring born to pregnant mice dosed with dibenzo[a,l]pyrene: the importance of in utero versus lactational exposure. A comparison of the organic-chemical composition of indoor aerosols during woodburning and nonwoodburning periods. These aspects of biological plausibility and coherence suggest that a cause-and-effect association between TCE exposure and cancer in humans is credible, even if the interpretation of in- dividual studies may be difficult. Measurement of perchloroethylene indoor air levels caused by fugitive emissions from unvented dry-to-dry dry-cleaning units. At the time of the study, mattress house dust mite lev- els were assessed; there was no evidence that the association of nitrogen dioxide with symptoms was modified by mattress allergen levels. It is well known from numerous epidemiological studies conducted among workers that subchronic or chronic exposure to benzene leads to adverse haematological effects. Over the five-year period, there was no evidence that the presence of these appliances was associated with the incidence of physician-diagnosed asthma in children with or without wheeze at baseline. Urban commuter exposure to particle matter and carbon monoxide inside an automobile. Emission rates of formaldehyde from materials and consumer products found in California homes. Species-dependent differences in biotransformation Mice metabolize PCE to trichloroacetic acid to a greater extent than rats. Treatment-related pathological effects were limited to changes in the stomach and the kidney in both sexes in the high-dose group; the kidney effect was considered secondary to the reduced intake of liquid. Car Cigarette Lighter Charger Bluetooth V4.0 Handsfree Speakerphone. Seasonal variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in soil and air of Dalian areas, China: an assessment of soil–air exchange. Protection from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke. Assessment of upper respiratory tract and ocular irritative effects of volatile chemicals in humans. TirmarcheMetal.Quantificationoflungcancerriskafterlowradon exposure and low exposure rate: synthesis from epidemiological and experimental data. Asthmatic symptoms among pupils in relation to winter indoor and outdoor air pollution in schools in Taiyuan, China. Thus, evidence of lung effects must depend on human data. Other older studies, many coming out of the Second World War, have not been included in published reviews by this author. At the lowest dose, no relevant treatment-related changes were observed in the nasal respiratory epithe- lium or in the lung. A guide for radon management should include, in addition to the setting of a reference level, building codes, measurement protocols and other relevant com- ponents of a national radon programme. These detectors are passive as they do not require electrical power. Nitrogen dioxide exposure assessment and cough among pre-school children. Exposure to ambient and microenvironmental concentrations of carbon monoxide. This volume, the second in the series following that address- ing the hazards of dampness and mould, sets guidelines for a range of chemical substances most commonly polluting indoor air. A sensitivity analysis of the pliofilm cohort with additional follow-up and new exposure estimates. TCE gave a clearly negative response in the assay at all dose levels. Controlled exposure studies suggest that nitrogen dioxide at levels associated with these peaks may be harmful but studies that use “average nitrogen dioxide” may not be able to detect these health effects. Exposure to benzene and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, an epidemiological overview and an ongoing case-control study in Shanghai. Carbon monoxide and physical work capacity. Duration adjustment of acute exposure guideline level values for trichloroethylene using a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model. A case-control study of multiple myeloma in whites: chronic antigenic stimulation, occupation, and drug use. It is also possible to be exposed to radon by ingestion of water containing high radon concentrations but the dose and risk in this case are very small in comparison to those due to inhalation. The health evaluation data suggest that lung cancer is the most serious health risk from exposure to PAHs in indoor air. Real- istic assessment of hazards to human health, however, necessitates a distinction between absolute safety and acceptable risk. The keywords were: “radon” and “cancer” or “health effects” or “mortality”. A rural population based case-control study of senile cataract in India. The increases in leukaemia, myeloid leukaemia and multiple myeloma in the Zhang et al. The regulations for indoor air pollution in Japan: a public health perspective. Effects on the CNS have also been demonstrated during chronic inhalation exposures. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in indoor and outdoor environments and factors affecting their concentrations. Results showed also the importance of combustion space heaters to elevated nitrogen dioxide concentrations. Studies on experimental systems have shown many PAHs to be genotoxic and carcinogenic. Surface area, adsorption and desorption studies on indoor dust samples. Solid fuel use was shown to be associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection, COPD, asthma, cataracts, tuberculosis and lung cancer. There is sufficient evidence that aluminium production causes bladder cancer in humans. To be sure, the percentage exercise reduction is greater for the angina patients than for the normal subjects, but this is simply due to the reduction in baseline exercise ability. Identification and quantitation of B[a]P-derived DNA adducts formed at low adduction level in mice lung tissue. Smoking as a confounder in ecologic correlations of cancer mortality rates with average county radon levels. Gas cooking, respiratory health and white blood cell counts in children. Aromatic DNA adducts in adjacent tissues of breast cancer patients: clues to breast cancer etiology.
Nanocomposites: synthesis, structure, properties and new.. Metabolism of naphthalene and naphthalene oxide in microdissected airways from mice, rats and hamsters. The conver- sion from track density to the mean radon concentration over the exposure pe- riod is achieved by controlled exposure of the detector to a calibrated concentra- tion of radon in a sealed exposure chamber. Dosimetry of nasal uptake of water-soluble and reactive gases: a first study of interhuman variability. Identification and synthesis of the isomeric tetrahydroxytetrahydronaphthalene metabolites excreted in rat urine. Metropolitan areas have higher PAH concentrations than forest and agricul- tural areas because of the many sources of fossil fuel combustion. This approach involves the interpretation of human biomonitoring data and a pos- sible comparison with health-based exposure guidelines.
Alveolar/bronchiolar adenomas were seen in both exposed males and females. Effects of carbon monoxide exposure on developing animals and humans. There is no evidence from large-scale epidemiological studies that have measured indoor nitrogen dioxide levels that respiratory health is worse in those who regularly use unvented gas appliances for cooking. Characterisation of urban inhalation exposures to benzene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in the European Union. He regained normal renal function after five haemodialyses and conservative treatment. Volatile organic compounds in the indoor air of normal and sick houses. The risk management for indoor air pollution caused by formaldehyde in housing. Keratinocyte growth factor prevents against Clara cell injury induced by naphthalene. Indoor smoke from solid fuels: assessing the environmental burden of disease at national and local levels. A hematology surveillance study of petrochemical workers exposed to benzene. Nasal ir- ritation dominated relative to that of the eyes and throat and was highest among those working with medium-density fibreboard and other wood products. A comparison of indoor air pollutants in Japan and Sweden: formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide, and chlorinated volatile. Additionally, the exposure-dependent trend was statistically significant for Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Kidney cancers were not significantly increased. Nasal epithelial lesions in rats following an acute inhalation exposure to naphthalene vapor at low concentrations. Distinction between adverse and non-adverse effects is difficult. Association of domestic exposure to volatile organic compounds with asthma in young children. Other animal experiments suggest that immunotoxicity is mediated via haptenization of macromolecules and that haptenized proteins may act as neo-antigens that can induce humoral immune response and T-cell-mediated hepatitis in mice. Indoor risk factors for asthma in a prospective study of adolescents. These studies were updated by Paxton et al. Assessment of formaldehyde metabolizing enzymes in human oral mucosa and cultured oral keratinocytes indicate high capacity for detoxification of formaldehyde. Although lung function measures provide more objective estimates of health sta- tus, inflammatory changes and symptoms may occur in the absence of lung func- tion changes. But other mechanisms of action may be involved, particularly since chloral hydrate is probably geno- toxic and, at high doses, clastogenic. Hence we recommend continuing to use the same unit risk factors cal- culated from the Pliofilm cohort studies. The substances considered in this review, i.e. Exposure to air pollutants in English homes. In a recent brief communication by Dodd et al. This hypothesis suggests that humans are likely to be much less responsive than mice and that carcinogenic effects are unlikely to occur at low environmental exposures. Assessment of cancer hazards in meta-analyses Oral cavity and pharynx, sinus and nasal cavity, and lung. Chromosome studies in workers exposed to benzene or toluene or both. Prediction of nasal cancer Formaldehyde can induce squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal cavity in rats. However, the location of the sensitive cells is not known with certainty and they may lie too deep to receive significant doses. Third, initiation of the primitive pluripotent stem cells presented within the nasal mucosa could occur, followed by transport to the bone marrow. Longitudinal studies have been used to examine whether exposure to gas ap- pliances has a deleterious effect on lung growth in children. Follow-up examinations revealed that typical hearing losses improved only slightly or not at all. B[a]P carcinogenicity is lost in mice lacking the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. When radon gas is inhaled, densely ionizing alpha particles emitted by depos- ited short-lived decay products of radon can interact with biological tissue in the lungs, leading to DNA damage. Catechol can be oxidized to trihydroxy- benzene, and hydroquinone can be oxidized to the highly reactive bipolar ben- zoquinone. These carbon monoxide associations generally remained robust in multiple pollutant models. A comparative study of VOCs in Singapore and European office buildings. Overall, the sensitivity analyses high- light the limited possibility of predicting risks from the rare events in the unex- posed control group. Contribution of vehicle emissions from an attached garage to residential indoor air pollution levels. In the atmosphere, PAHs may be subject to direct photolysis, although ad- sorption to particulates can retard this process. Factors associated with human exposures to polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons. As part of the ECRHS, the same protocol was followed in other research centres in Europe. WHO guidelines for indoor air quality: selected pollutants The WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bonn Office, WHO Regional Office for Europe coordinated the development of these WHO guidelines. For example, if several small studies that are free from bias and confounding show an association that is consistent in magnitude and direction, there may be sufficient evidence of an association. Fredriksson A, Danielsson BR, Eriksson P. Associations of these outcomes with nitrogen dioxide were modified by atopic status and by season.
Buy HJ 12 x 3.8" 1238 CW / CCW Propeller for Multi-axis R/C.. Second, examina- tion of dose–response effects may be difficult as “frequent use” of a gas cooking appliance also implies frequent exposure to a range of other cooking-related pol- lutants. Blood levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in children and their association with oxidative stress indices: an Indian perspective. Childhood asthma and the indoor environment. There is suggestive evidence of an association with other cancers, in particular leukaemia and can- cers of the extra-thoracic airways. Intravascular neutrophil activation due to carbon monoxide poisoning. Computer simulation of the lactational transfer of tetrachloroethylene in rats using a physiologically based model. Ocular effects of chronic carbon monoxide exposure. Quest for the true story of environmental radon and lung cancer. Distribution After absorption, TCE is widely distributed in the body via the circulatory sys- tem. Epidemiological studies in the general population suggest malformations, peri- natal death and low birth weight, but possible bias and exposure misclassification prevent firm conclusions being drawn. In addition, some non-European studies were reviewed. Establishing legally binding concentration-based standards of indoor air quality requires, inter alia, determination of the methods for enforcement of the regulation, including compliance testing. Carcinogenicity is not used as an end-point as there are no indications that PCE is genotoxic and there is uncertainty about the epidemiological evidence and the relevance to humans of the ani- mal carcinogenicity data. Sonnenfeld N, Hertz-Picciotto I, Kaye WE. Hemoglobin and albumin adducts of benzene oxide among workers exposed to high levels of benzene. Reactive intermediates and metab- olites are formed that cause the toxicity and carcinogenicity. Комплект ковриков в салон автомобиля Novline-Autofamily Suzuki Kizashi 2010 седан. Цвет: черный. The evidence was classified according to the professional judgement of the experts of the clar- ity of the reported findings with consideration of the strength, quality, diversity and number of studies. When it reacts with water it forms trichloroacetic acid. Mis-specified and non-robust mortality risk models from nasopharyngeal cancer in the National Cancer Institute formaldehyde worker cohort study.
Caffeine - Wikipedia. In the case of meteorological variables, their effects on radon exhalation from the ground and entry to dwellings is quite complex, with changes in atmospheric pressure, wind speed and precipitation being most important in this regard. Metabolic activation of polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and DNA damage: a review. Behavioral effects of carbon monoxide: meta-analyses and extrapolations. Neverthe- less, adoption of the guidelines presented in this volume as benchmarks for such models and actions is a useful option for reducing the adverse effects of indoor air pollution on health. Thus for a specific en- vironmental case of interest, mathematical simulations can be done to estimate protective regulatory decisions. In addition to sufficient evidence in experimental animals for upper airway car- cinogenicity, IARC concluded that there is sufficient epidemiological evidence that formaldehyde causes nasopharyngeal cancer in humans. Carbon monoxide air pollution and its health impact on the major cities of China. Consequently, children are not expected to be more sensitive to any car- cinogenic effect of formaldehyde than adults and are thus not considered sepa- rately in the further evaluation. Several groups of researchers have reported elevated con- centrations of PCE in fatty food products in residences and markets, owing to contamination from dry cleaning establishments nearby. An assessment of indoor air contaminants in buildings with recreational activity. Комплект ковриков в салон автомобиля Novline-Autofamily Subaru Tribeca 2005. The real impact of the biological effects observed on the reproductive function of the animals is not known, nor is the transposability of these effects to human reproductive function. Possible genotoxicity in low level benzene exposure. Benzene induces gene-duplication but not gene- inactivating mutations at the glycophorin A locus in exposed humans